Sep 23, 2020

Synthesis of Alcohols

In this article we will discuss about organic reactions which are commonly used for the Synthesis of Alcohols

Alcohols are the important intermediates in Organic Chemistry. They are widely used for synthesis of other functional groups such as alkyl halides, alkenes, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids etc.

Key words: Alcohols, Nucleophilic Substitution, Hydration, Oxymercuration-demercuration, Hydroboration-oxidation, Dihydroxylation, Reduction, Syn addition, Anti addition, Grignard reagents.

Sep 20, 2020

Alcohols - Structure and Nomenclature

In this article we will learn about Structure and Nomenclature of Alcohols. The Alcohols are organic compounds that consist of hydroxyl (-OH) group.

Key words: Alcohols, Structure and Nomenclature, IUPAC Names of Alcohols, Polyols, Phenols.

The word alcohol is derived from Arabic word al-kuhl means "the essence". They are one of the most common compounds used in nature and industries. 

Sep 19, 2020

Types of Arrows in Organic Chemistry

In organic chemistry, arrows are used for writing reactions and mechanisms.

Key words: Forward arrow, Dashed arrow, Equilibrium arrow, Non-equilibrium arrow, Resonance arrow, Curved arrow, Broken arrow, Retrosynthesis arrow, Clockwise and Anti-Clockwise arrows, Rotation arrow, Rearrangement arrow

Sep 16, 2020

Chemical Formula - Definition, Types & Examples

Chemical formula is the way of representation of the molecule which gives information about all the elements present and their proportion in that molecule.

Key words: Chemical formula,  Molecular formula, Empirical formula, Condensed formula, Displayed formula, Structural formula, Skeletal formula, Hill Notation.

Sep 14, 2020

Chemical Reaction - Definition, Types & Examples

Chemical reaction is the change in physical or chemical properties of substance to form new substance. In general a chemical reaction is due to breaking or formation of chemical bond between the atoms.

Key words: Chemical reaction, Reactant, Reagent, Product, Mechanism, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Synthesis, Decomposition, Redox reaction, Single replacement, Double replacement,  Acid-base reactions, Combustion, Precipitation.

In this article we will learn about chemical reactions and different types of chemical reactions. Every reaction has three components: reactant,  reagent and product. 

Sep 12, 2020

Naming of Bicyclic Alkanes

IUPAC nomenclature of bicyclic alkanes in organic chemistry. They saturated cyclic hydrocarbon compounds. 

Key words: 
Bicyclic alkanes, Fused bicyclic, Bridged bicyclic, Spirocyclic, Nomenclature. 

As the name of the broad category indicates “bicyclic” means there are two rings which are joined together. In this category of alkanes three types of structures are found.                                                     

      Fused bicyclic

2.    Bridged bicyclic

3.    Spirocyclic

Sep 11, 2020

Cycloalkanes - Structure and Nomenclature

In this article we will discuss Structure and Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes. 
Cycloalkenes are cyclic saturated hydrocarbons and have general formula of CnH2n. They are named in similar way of alkanes with addition of prefix “cyclo”.

Key words: Saturated hydrocarbons, Cycloalkanes, IUPAC nomenclature. 

Sep 10, 2020

Alkynes - Structure and Nomenclature

In this article we will learn about Structure and Nomenclature of Alkynes.

Key words: Alkynes, Unsaturated hydrocarbons, carbon-carbon triple bond, IUPAC Nomenclature. 

Alkynes are the unsaturated hydrocarbons. They consist of at least one carbon-carbon triple bond.

Sep 8, 2020

Alkenes - Structure and Nomenclature

In this article we will learn about Structure and Nomenclature of Alkenes in organic chemistry. 

Key wordsAlkenes, Unsaturated hydrocarbons, Carbon-carbon double bond, IUPAC Nomenclature. 

The Alkenes are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. They are derivatives of alkanes and consist of one or more carbon-carbon double bond. Alkenes have general formula CnH2n.

Sep 6, 2020

Alkanes - Structure and Nomenclature

In this article we will learn about Structure and Nomenclature of Alkanes in organic chemistry.
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. They have general formula CnH2n+2 
Key words: Alkanes, Saturated hydrocarbons, Common names of alkane, IUPAC nomenclature.